This white paper provides an in depth analysis of common consumer consent models utilized in the electronic exchange of health information across organizational, jurisdictional, and stakeholder boundaries.
This paper describes the current electronic health information exchange landscape, explaining the importance of patient consent and consumer participation as electronic health information exchange becomes more widespread. The authors outline the five core approaches to client consent that are commonly used in electronic information exchanges. They also explain the implications each model has on patient participation in determining the type of data that is shared, who the data is shared with, when the data can be shared, and the purposes for which the data is shared. The authors illustrate the implications of the five consent models by providing examples of jurisdictions that are employing each of the models, highlighting the factors that influenced decisions to employ certain consent models and the pros and cons of each model. The authors then analyze these models, focusing on the perspectives of major stakeholders in electronic health information exchange and the ethical, cultural, legal, technological, and procedural considerations of this type of information sharing. Finally, the authors outline the implications of each of the models on patient and provider participation, clinical care, quality improvement and research, and the reduction of health disparities and explore how consent policies can be implemented, comparing the use of federal, state and consumer driven approaches.